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1. Introduction to HTML

What is HTML?

HTML is a markup language which is used for creating attractive web pages with the help of styling and which looks in a nice format on a web browser.

An HTML document is made of many HTML tags and each HTML tag contains different content.

HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language.

HTML is the standard markup language for creating web pages.

HTML describes the structure of a web page.

HTML elements tell the browser how to display the content.

 

Let’s see a simple example of HTML.

<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<title>

My first website

</title>

</head>

<body>

<h1>My first heading</h1>

<p>My first paragraph.</p>

</body>

</html>

Example explained

·         The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration defines that this document is an HTML 5 document.

·         The <html> element is the root element of an HTML Page.

·         The <head> element contains meta information about the HTML page.

·         The <title> element specifies a title for the HTML page (which is shown in the browser’s title bar or in the page’s tab)

·         The <body> element defines the document’s body and is a container for all the visible contents, such as headings, paragraphs, images, hyperlinks, tables, lists etc.

·         The <h1> element defines a large heading.

·         The <p> element defines a paragraph.

      What is an HTML element?

An HTML element is defined by a starting tag, some content and an ending tag.

A text surrounded by angle brackets is known as tag.

Text – HTML, body

Tag - <html>, <body>

Uses of tags

Tags are used to display our contents on webpage and it also defines the place of our contents.

A tag starts with <> and end with </>

<tagname>Write some content</tagname>

A start tag also called opening tag and close tag also called ending tag.

A tag must be closed with </> brackets.

A tag marked our content to display them on web page

Example:

<h1>My first heading</h1>

<p>My first paragraph.</p>


How to start coding in HTML?

·         Open notepad

·         Write your HTML code

·         Then save as

·         Anyname.html


Basic Structure of HTML

<html>

<head>

<title>

My first website

</title>

</head>

<body>

Hello World

</body>

</html>


Brief history of HTML

In the late 1980’s, a physicist Tim Berners Lee, who was a contractor at CERN, proposed a system for CERN researchers. In 1989, he wrote a memo proposing an internet based hypertext system.

Tim Berners Lee is known as the father of HTML. The first available description of HTML was a document called “HTML Tags” proposed by Tim in late 1991. The latest version of HTML is HTML5.


HTML Versions

Since the time, HTML was invented there are lots of HTML versions in market.

The brief introduction about the HTML version is given below

·         HTML1.0 – The first version of HTML was 1.0, which was the barebones version of HTML Language and it was released in 1991.

·         HTML2.0 – This was the next version, which was released in 1995, and it was standard language version for website design. HTML 2.0 was able to support extra features such as form based file upload, form elements such as text box, option button etc.

·         HTML3.2 – HTML 3.2 version was published by W3C in early 1997. This version was capable of creating tables and providing support for extra options for form elements. It can also support a web page with complex mathematical questions. It became an official standard for any browser till January 1997. Today it is practically supported by most of the browsers.

·         HTML4.01 – HTML4.01 version was released on December 1999, and it is a very stable version of HTML language. This version is the current official standard, and it provides added support for stylesheet (CSS) and scripting ability for various multimedia elements.

·         HTML5 – HTML5 is the newest version of HTML. The first draft of this version was announced in January 2008. There are two major organization one in

W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), and another one is WHATWG (Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group) which are involved in the development of HTML5 version.


Features of HTML

·         It is a very easy and simple language. It can be easily understood and modified.

·         It is very easy to make an effective presentation with HTML because it has a lot of formatting tags.

·         It is a markup language, so it provides a flexible way to design web pages along with the text.

·         It is platform - independent because it can be displayed on any platform like Windows, Linux and Macintosh etc. 

·         HTML is a case – sensitive language, which means we can use tags either in lower – case and upper – case.

 

Building blocks of HTML

An HTML document consists of its basic building blocks which are:

·         Tags: An HTML tag surrounds the content and applies meaning to it. It is written between < and > brackets.

·         Attributes: An attribute in HTML provides extra information about the element, and it is applied within the start tag. An HTML attribute contains two fields: name and value.

 

Syntax

<tag name attribute name= “attribute value”> Content</tag name>

·         Elements: An HTML element is an individual component of an HTML file. In an HTML file, everything written within tags are termed as HTML elements.


<!DOCTYPE html>

<html>

<head>

<title>

My first website

</title>

</head>

<body>

<h1>Heading tag</h1>

<p>vinaytips.com is a computer education related website</p>

<p style = “color:red”>vinaytips.com is a computer education related website</p>

</body>

</html>

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Thanks for Reading.

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