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Introduction to Operating System

Introduction to Operating System

Operating system is the system software that performs all the basic tasks of a computer system. It works like an interface between the user and the computer hardware resources. It actually controls the execution of all the tasks that are performed in a computer.
Some example of operating systems are : Unix, MS DOS, Windows XP / 7 / 8 / 10 / 11.
It enables a user to utilize hardware resources very efficiently. So, operating system makes it easy for a user to use computer system.
An operating system is a collection of programs that controls and coordinates all the tasks and functions in a computer system. It mediates between application programs and hardware components.

Basics of Operating System


Operating system is the main part of the system software of any computer. It mainly provides an environment to run the software and serves services to the computer hardware. Basically, operating system has two objectives: managing the computer's hardware and providing the interface. 

Functions of Operating System

The main functions of an operating system are as follows:

1. Process Management: A process is an application or a program in running state. Process Management is the important part of an operating system which enables the activities of planning, monitoring and performance of a CPU.

2. Memory Management: As a memory manager, the operating system handles the allocation and deallocation of memory space as required by various programs. Managing the Primary memory, sharing and minimizing memory access time are the basic goals of the memory management.

3. File Management: The operating system is responsible for creation and deletion of files and directors. It also takes care of other file related activities such as organizing, storing, retrieving, naming and protecting the files.

4. Input / Output Management: The input / output management module of an operating system coordinates and assigns different input and output devices. It controls all input / output devices, keeps track of input / output requests, issues commands to these devices.

5. Security Management: The operating system protects system resources and information against destruction and unauthorized use. It keeps different programs and data in such a manner that they do not interface with each other.

Types of Operating System


1. Time Sharing Operating System
In this operating system, a small amount of time is allocated for the processing simultaneously. It provides scheduling to each process to be run on.
Example: Mac OS.

2. Real Time Operating System
It was designed to respond to an event within a predetermined time. It aims to execute real time applications such as auto pilot mechanism used in aircrafts. 
Example: Windows CE, QNX, RTLINUX, VxWorks, Free RTOS etc.

3. Single User Operating System
It is designed for one user to effectively use a computer at a time.
Example: Windows 95 / NT / 2000, DOS etc.

4. Multi User Operating System
It allows many users to take advantage of the computer's resources simultaneously. It ensures that problem with one user doesn't affect the entire community of users.
Example: Unix, VMS, Linux, Windows 2000 etc.

5. Single Tasking Operating System
It allows only a single program to run at a time. 
Example: Palm OS etc.

6. Multi Programming Operating System
It allows to run several programs at a time using time sharing. This operating system keeps several jobs in memory at a time.
Example: Linux, Unix etc.

7. Multi Tasking Operating System
This operating system is the logical extension of multi programming operating system. In this OS, more that one processes can be executed concurrently. It reduces CPU idle time.
Example: Microsoft's Windows and Apple's Mac OS.

8. Distributed Operating System
It uses multiple central processors to serve multiple real time applications. It manages a group of independent computers and makes them appear to a single computer. Data processing jobs are distributed among the processors according to their efficiency.
Example: LOCUS etc.

9. Batch Processing Operating System
Similar types of jobs are grouped under batch and these batches are executed without user's interruption. Jobs are processed in the order of submission, i.e., On First Come First Serve (FCFS) basis. 
Example: DOS, IBM, OS/2 etc.

10. Multi Processing Operating System
Use of two or more CPUs within a single computer system. Simultaneous Processing of two or more programs by multiple processors.
Example: Linux, Unix, Windows 2000 etc.

Operating Systems for Desktop and Laptop


Some commonly used operating systems for desktop and laptop are as follows:

1. UNIX
It is an operating system which was first developed in the 1969s. UNIX systems have a Graphical User Interface (GUI) similar to different Microsoft Windows which provides an easy way to use platform. It supports fully multi tasking with protected memory which means multiple users can run multiple programs at the same time without interfering with each other or crashing the system. UNIX was one of the first operating to be written in a high level programming language, namely C.

This meant that it could be installed on virtually any computer for which a Complier existed. This natural portability combined with its low price made it a popular choice among universities.

2. Linux
It is an open source operating system designed primarily for the PCs and laptops. Linux was
designed considering Unix compatibility. Its functionality list a quite similar to that of Unix. One of the most valued advantage of Linux over the other platforms lies with the high security levels. It is a virus free operating system.

3. Mac OS (Apple Macintosh)
It is an operating system which was introduced on March 24, 2001 by Apple Inc and was initially named as system software, which was later renamed as Mac OS. Most recent version of OS is based on Unix because it has a good graphical interface. So, it is both stable (does not crush often or has as many have) and easy to learn. One drawback of this system is that it can be run on Apple produced products.

4. MS Windows
It is a series of Graphical User Interface (GUI) operating systems developed, marked and sold by Microsoft. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add on to MS DOS in response to the growing interest in Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs).

The most popular versions of Windows for personal computers, mobile devices and server computers are as follows:

I) Windows NT (New Technology)
The first version of Windows NT was Windows NT 3.1 released in July 27, 1993 by Microsoft. It is a processor independent, multi - processing, multi - user operating system.

II)Windows 95
It was developed in August, 1995 by Microsoft. It is an operating system based on consumer oriented application. Although, it can run older Windows and DOS applications. It has essentials removed DOS as a underlying platform.

III) Windows 98
It was released in 1998 by Microsoft. It was released in 1998 by Microsoft. It was produced in two main versions, i.e., the first version was plagued with programming errors but the second edition (which came out later) was much better with many errors resolved.

IV) Windows 2000
It was released in February, 2000 by Microsoft. A better versions of the Windows NT OS, that works well both at home and as a workstation in a business.

V) Windows ME (Millennium Edition)
It was released in September, 2000 by Microsoft. AN upgraded version of Windows NT OS, that works well both at home and as a workstation in a business.

VI) Windows XP (eXPerience)
It was released in October 25, 2001 by Microsoft. It is an OS produced for personal computers. Two versions of Windows XP are Windows XP Home Edition and Windows XP Professional EDition.

VII) Windows Vista
It was released in January, 2007 by Microsoft. It offers an advancement in reliability, security, ease of deployment, performance, and manageability over Windows XP.

VIII) Windows 7
It was released in July 22, 2009 by Microsoft. It is an upgrade of Windows XP and Vista. It does not include some standard applications like Windows Movie Maker, Windows Mall, etc. Now - a - days, it is the most commonly used operating system.

IX) Windows 8
It was released in August 1, 2012 by Microsoft. It introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with Mobile OS, including Android and iOS.      

X) Windows 10
It was released to manufacturing in July, 2015 by Microsoft. It is a personal computer operating system as a part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

5. Solaris
It is a free operating system originally developed by SUM Microsystems in 1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known and owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle's acquisitions of Sun in January 2010.
Solaris is known for its scalability, reduced cost, protected investments in applications. It is a standard operating system with excellent performance, system management and network functions.

6. MS DOS (Micro Soft - Disk Operating System) 
It is an operating system that runs on PC and developed by IBM corporation in 1981. It was the most commonly used member of the DOS family of operating system.
Initially, MS DOS was targeted at Intel 8086 processors running on computer hardware using floppy disks to store and access not only the operating system, but application software and user data as well.
Ultimately, it was the key product in Microsoft's development from a programming languages company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It is a flexible operating system and consumes negligible installation space.

Operating System for Mobile Phones and Tablets


It is an OS that operates on smartphones, tablets and digital mobile devices. A mobile OS controls a mobile devices. A mobile OS controls a mobile device and its design supports wireless communication and different types of mobile applications. It has built in support for mobile multimedia formats.

The most common operating systems for mobile phone and tablets are as follows:  

1. Android
It is the most popular Linux based open source software developed by Google in September, 2008.
It is basically designed for touch screen mobile devices like tablets, smartphones etc. 
Now - a - days, it is most common OS used in mobile phones.

2. iOS
It is the popular mobile operating system developed by Apple Incorporation. iOS was introduced in June 29, 2007 when the first iPhone was developed . This operating system is commonly used in Apple iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, Second Generation Apple TV etc.

3. BlackBerry
This is the most secure operating system used in leading smartphones developed by BlackBerry company. BlackBerry was introduced in January 19, 1999. It also supports WAP 1.2.

4. Symbian
It was developed on 5th June, 1997 and sold by Symbian Ltd. It is a mobile OS targeted at mobile phones that offer a high level of integration with communication and Personal Information Management (PIM) functionality.
Symbian is an open source mobile OS designed for smart phones. It has been used by many major handset manufactures including Motorola, Nokia, Samsung, Sony etc.

User Interface

The user interface is one of the most important parts of any operating system because it allows users to easily access the applications and the hardware. It is set of commands or menus. The user can interact with the computer by using mainly two kinds of interfaces.

1. Character User Interface (CUI)
This is a mechanism of interacting with a computer system or software by by typing commands to perform specific tasks. Programs with character User Interface are generally easier to automate via scripting . CUI only uses text types one after another, just as commands used in MS DOS. It is also known as Command Line Interface (CLI).

2. Graphical User Interface (GUI)
It is used as an interface between program and user. This is a computer program that enables a user to communicate with a computer through the use of symbols, visual metaphors and pointing devices.
The first graphical user interface was designed by Xerox Corporation in 1970. GUI can be found in hand held devices such as MP3 players, portable media player, gaming devices etc.

User Interface for Desktop and Laptop


User interface for desktop and laptop allows users to easily access the application and hardware.
Here, we will discuss Ubuntu operating system that provides user interface.

Ubuntu Operating System
Ubuntu is an open source operating system based on the Debian GNU / Linux distribution.
Ubuntu incorporates all the features of a Unix OS with an added customizable GUI, which makes it popular in universities and research organizations. Ubuntu is primarily designed to be used on personal computers, although a server editions does also exist.

Features of Ubuntu
There are following features of Ubuntu:

It supports the office suite called LibreOffice.
It is easy to find content on Ubuntu with the smart searching facility.
There are also applications to manage videos and it also allows the users to share videos.
There are a host of free applications for users to view and edit photos.
Ubuntu has an in - built e - mail software called Thunderbird, which gives the user access to 
e - mail. 

Ubuntu Desktop
When you turn ON the computer then the visible screen, which will display on the computer is known as desktop. A small arrow or blinking symbol, moving on the desktop is called as cursor.

Some important components of desktop are described below:

Icons and Shortcut
A small image of a program shown on the desktop with program name is known as icon. Icons are small pictures that represent files, folders, programs and other items. When user click on icon, the associated program will be opened. Some of the icons displayed on desktop are as follows:

Search Your Computer
It is also known as dash. In this icon, with the help of search box you can search any software in your system. By default, It represents Thunderbird Mail, Videos, Text Editor, or any file, folder which saved on desktop.

Files
This icon contains Desktop, Documents, Downloads, Music, Pictures, Public, Templates, Videos and Example options. Network connection also displays in this icon.

Firefox
With this icon, internet services are provided in the system.

LibreOffice Writer
This icon helps to create and manipulate text document. There are various tools present in the LibreOffice Writer which are used to create template, printing the document etc.

LibreOffice Calc
This icon helps to create spreadsheet document. Calc is a powerful program that used for analyzing, sharing and managing information for accounting purpose, performing mathematical calculations.

LibreOffice Impress
This icon helps to create presentation. Impress is a presentation software that used for creation of the slides and to display the information in the form of presentation of slides.

System Settings
This icon presents the setting related to system, hardware and personal. You can change the date and time, display, printer of your system.

Recycle Bin
It contains deleted files or folders

Notification Area
Upper Right Corner of the window display the notification area, that communicate the status of certain programs and computer settings. 
Notifications area contains various options as:

Network Indicator
It arranges the network connection which connect your computer to network.

Sound or Volume Indicator
It allows to adjust the sound or volume in the system.

Text Entry Indicator
It represents the details of current keyboard layout and related setting.

Clock Indicator
It provides the options related to current date or time, calendar, setting etc.

Session Indicator
It provides the options as system settings, log out, shut down, etc.

Taskbar
Initially, the long horizontal bar at the bottom of our desktop is known as taskbar. By default, there is no taskbar in Ubuntu but you can add it from dash.

Structure of a Window
Window is a rectangular area which provides an environment to run many programs. It allows a user to work with multiple programs or view multiple program at once. A window includes title bar, menu bar etc.

Title Bar
It is the horizontal bar at the top of a window that displays the name of the window or the program, which is currently being used.

Controls Buttons
Title bar contains three small buttons on its left corner, i.e., minimize, maximize, or restore down and close. These buttons are known as control buttons.

The minimize button 
Which looks like a small dash (or minus sign). This button shrinks and place the window on the launcher while leaving the program running. To go back to this window, click on launcher where it is shrinked.

The maximize button
Which looks like a small window is used to enlarge a window to cover the entire desktop.
After a window is maximized, the control buttons are automatically hidden from window.

To make them appear, just move your mouse pointer to the menu bar. Clicking the maximize button again will return the window to its original size.

The close button
Which is represented by cross sign. If you click on close button, the window will get closed.

Left pane
Left pane of window includes various options as Desktop, Documents, Downloads, Music, Pictures and Recent which has recently opened programs.

Right Pane
It is a large pane. It displays that files or programs which are currently used.

Running an Application
Application can run using following ways:

If you want to run the application using launcher, click on desired icon of application.
From which, the window of that application will be shown on your screen.
If you want want to run the application using dash, click on Search Your Computer icon.
A window will be appear on your screen, enter the name of application which you want to be open in search bar and press Enter key.
From which, the window of that application will be appear.

This Notes is Very Useful and Helpful for Computer Students
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61. ई श्रम योजना क्या हैं ? ई श्रम कार्ड के फायदे। पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
62. Computer की Speed कैसे बढ़ाये?
63. Internet क्या है? Internet की पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
64. Intranet, Extranet, DSL, TCP, FTP क्या होते हैं?
65. Computer में Internet कैसे चलाते हैं?
66. Web Browser क्या होता हैं और कौन सा Web Browser सबसे अच्छा होता हैं?
67. Website क्या है? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
68. Domain Name क्या है? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
69. इंटरनेट से संबंधित महत्वपूर्ण जानकारियाँ
70. Internet Related Full Form
71. Wi - Fi क्या है? और Wi - Fi कैसे काम करता हैं?
72. Podcast क्या होता है? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में
73. PDF क्या होता है और PDF कैसे बनाते है?
74. Coding क्या है और Coding कैसे सीखें? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में
75. QR Code क्या होता है? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
76. GPS क्या होता है? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
77. UPI क्या हैं? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
78. Cryptocurrency क्या होता है? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
79. OTP क्या है? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
80. VPN क्या होता है? पूरी जानकारी हिंदी में।
81. Top 10 Google Tips & Tricks
82. Keyboard के F और J बटन पर क्यों होता हैं उभार?
83. What is Artificial Intelligence?
84. HTML Multimedia Files Integration
85. Basic Computer Shortcut Keys
86. Common Shortcut Keys Used in MS OFFICE
87. MS Word Shortcut Keys
88. MS Excel Shortcut Keys
89. MS PowerPoint Shortcut Keys
90. Photoshop Shortcut Keys
91. Excel में बनना है Expert तो ये Shortcut Keys जरूर आना चाहिए।
92. Computer GK in Hindi
93. Basic Computer Course क्या होता है? Basic Computer Course में क्या क्या सिखाया जाता है?
94. CCC Course क्या है ? CCC Course करने के फायदे।
95. DCA Course क्या है ? DCA Course करने के फायदे
96. ADCA Course क्या है ? ADCA Course करने के फायदे
97. DFA Course क्या है ? DFA Course करने के फायदे।
98. एक ऐसा कोर्स जो आपकी जिंदगी बदल दे। Hardware & Software Technology Course
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100. New Post Coming Soon
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